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ISSN No: 1608-6627
Editorial Board
Guidelines for Article Submission

Articles for Volume Year 2015 Volume 27-2

The Impact of Remittances on Central Bank Balance Sheets and Inflation in Nepal
[Nephil Matangi Maskay, Ph.D., Sven Steinkamp, Ph.D., Frank Westermann, Ph.D. ]

Starting from a set of stylized central bank balance sheets, we analyze how central bank policies influence the inflationary impact of remittances. We also estimate the impact of remittances on inflation empirically, using a Vectorautoregression (VAR) framework and a quarterly data set from Nepal. We find this impact to be positive, even after controlling for inflation from India. The domestic monetary base, on the other hand, has lost significance as an independent factor for inflation in the latest 10 years of our sample period. This evidence is consistent with the "impossible trinity" hypothesis. In the conclusions we discuss policy options to accommodate large remittances inflows.

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Theoretical Paradigm on Bank Capital Regulation and its Impact on Bank-Borrower Behavior
[Gunakar Bhatta, Ph.D.]

Bank equity plays an important role in the credit allocation process of financial intermediaries. Financial institutions with higher level of equity are in better position to absorb losses and repay deposits in a timely manner. This relates to the bank capital channel of monetary policy transmission mechanism stating that banks having sound financial health could contribute significantly in transmitting monetary impulses to the real sector. Considering the important role that bank equity plays in shaping the risk taking behavior of financial intermediaries, central banks set the minimum paid-up capital requirement for banks and financial institutions. Though this regulatory requirement is aimed at ensuring the smooth financial intermediation, this could become costlier in extending loans particularly in the times of business cycle fluctuations. A higher capital requirement might also constrain the lending capacity of a bank. Given the conflicting theoretical assumptions on the role of equity capital on financial stability and economic growth, this paper develops a theoretical model examining the relationship between bank equity and its effect on bank-borrower behavior. The theoretical model recommends that higher level of bank equity might be helpful in ensuring financial stability by altering the behavior of the bank and borrower.

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Financial Literacy for Increasing Sustainable Access to Finance in Nepal
[Ramesh Prasad Chaulagain]

Recent policies and practices of Nepali financial sector are focused to establish financial institutions to increase people’s ‘access to finance’. As a result, the numbers of financial institutions licensed both by Nepal Rastra Bank and Government of Nepal are growing rapidly. All the institutions are doing the similar functions in the same market. The financial institutions licensed by Nepal Rastra Bank are classified into commercial banks, development banks, finance companies and micro finance development banks, whereas the Government of Nepal licenses to the saving and credit cooperative socieites (SACCOS). Despite the supply sided endeavors, the demand side considerations in financial sector is more silent. This creates a concern about the capability of people in consuming financial services. As a result, quality and sustainable access to finance are in question. Furthermore, the expansions of such institutions are also concentrated in urban, semi-urban and priviledged areas causing unequal distribution of institutions and limited access to finance. This situation has given rise to unhealthy competition among the actors focusing on earning rather than empowering the financial consumers. This paper explores how far the expansion of Banks and Financial Institutions including cooperatives assures the access to finance and its sustainability. The secondary data shows a significant growth of financial sector and an increment of number of people involved in financial transactions in the banking industry. However, the primary data of the study shows that such expansion is necessary but not sufficient condition to assure a sustainable access to finance. The study also explores the worth of financial literacy among the people both in urban and rural areas as one of the means to enhance people’s access to finance and its sustainability. The paper is based more on the discussion and analytical approach with a mix of secondary and primary sources of data.

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Determinants of Corporate Dividend Payout in Nepal
[Nabaraj Adhikari, Ph.D.]

There are several studies that investigated determinants of corporate dividend payout in developed and emerging stock markets. Such a study is scant in pre-emerging stock markets like that of Nepal. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the determinants of corporate dividend payout in Nepal. This paper examines whether enterprises’ characteristics affect dividend payouts of the enterprises listed on Nepal Stock Exchange Ltd. A priori hypothesis between relationship of the dividends paid by the enterprises and enterprises’ characteristics- net profits, size, lagged dividends, liquidity, risk, investment opportunity set, and number of shareholders are set based on theoretical framework and other empirical studies, and tested on 22 listed enterprises covering a 5-year period, 2009 to 2013 by employing regression model. Purposive sampling technique is used to select the enterprises for the study. The relationships of variables firstly analysed for overall sector and further for sub-sectors of financial and nonfinancial sector. Overall sector analysis is performed through pooled cross-sectional data. Further to check sectoral differences, sector wise regression analysis is performed. The results, in overall, reveal that profitability, size, and liquidity are major determinants of corporate dividend payout in Nepal. This study also reveals that there is sector specific importance of the determinants of corporate dividend payout in Nepal.

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Cost Efficiency of Nepali Commercial Banks in the Context of Regulatory Changes
[Sabin Bikram Panta, Devi Prasad Bedari, Ph.D.]

Nepal has witnessed substantial quantitative growth in the banking sector after the regulatory reforms in early 1990s by Nepal Rastra Bank (NRB). The substantial increases in the number of banks have created intense competition among them. This has resulted in a sharp upward trend in the number of financially troubled banks. The study examined the level of cost efficiency of 18 “A” class commercial banks during the period of 2005/06 to 2011/12 by using stochastic frontier analysis. The overall result indicates that the level of cost efficiency has increased substantially over the period of time with small size banks exhibiting higher cost efficiency as compared to the medium size ones. Similarly, result also shows that change in the regulation after 2008 even though is positively related with the cost, but not statistically significant.

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Nepal's Fiscal Federalism Model in the New Constitution: Agenda for Amendments
[Uma Shankar Prasad, Ph.D.]

The first Constituent Assembly (CA) was dissolved without producing the constitution. The Constitution of Nepal as Federal Democratic Republic was promulgated on September 20, 2015 by the second CA. The primary objective of this study is to review the modality presented in the new constitution on the natural resources, economic rights and revenue allocation and recommend some amendments. The study finds that the fiscal decentralization initiatives have not been successful in minimizing the political, social, economic, regional and ethnic inequalities inherent for nearly 240 years of a unitary system of governance in Nepal. The study recommends: VAT and income taxes will have to be collected concurrently at both the central and sub-national levels. Other taxes including excise duties will have to be collected by the sub-national governments which will support the expenditure responsibilities of the sub-national governments adequately in federal Nepal. Intergovernmental transfer modality has to be included in the constitution. A Federal Finance Commission (FFC) and the National Planning Commission will have to be constituted at the central level to make national level development plans and to make recommendations for additional grants and loans. A State Planning Commission (SPC) and a State Finance Commission can be established in each state to prepare state development plans and to deal with the transfers to be made to local bodies.

View full article Nepal's Fiscal Federalism Model in the New Constitution: Agenda for Amendments